What Makes Us Smart

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Publisher : Princeton University Press
ISBN 13 : 0691225990
Total Pages : 218 pages
Book Rating : 4.99/5 ( download)

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Book Synopsis What Makes Us Smart by : Samuel Gershman

Download or read book What Makes Us Smart written by Samuel Gershman and published by Princeton University Press. This book was released on 2021-10-19 with total page 218 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: How a computational framework can account for the successes and failures of human cognition At the heart of human intelligence rests a fundamental puzzle: How are we incredibly smart and stupid at the same time? No existing machine can match the power and flexibility of human perception, language, and reasoning. Yet, we routinely commit errors that reveal the failures of our thought processes. What Makes Us Smart makes sense of this paradox by arguing that our cognitive errors are not haphazard. Rather, they are the inevitable consequences of a brain optimized for efficient inference and decision making within the constraints of time, energy, and memory—in other words, data and resource limitations. Framing human intelligence in terms of these constraints, Samuel Gershman shows how a deeper computational logic underpins the “stupid” errors of human cognition. Embarking on a journey across psychology, neuroscience, computer science, linguistics, and economics, Gershman presents unifying principles that govern human intelligence. First, inductive bias: any system that makes inferences based on limited data must constrain its hypotheses in some way before observing data. Second, approximation bias: any system that makes inferences and decisions with limited resources must make approximations. Applying these principles to a range of computational errors made by humans, Gershman demonstrates that intelligent systems designed to meet these constraints yield characteristically human errors. Examining how humans make intelligent and maladaptive decisions, What Makes Us Smart delves into the successes and failures of cognition.

What Makes Us Smart

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Author :
Publisher : Princeton University Press
ISBN 13 : 069120571X
Total Pages : 218 pages
Book Rating : 4.17/5 ( download)

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Book Synopsis What Makes Us Smart by : Samuel Gershman

Download or read book What Makes Us Smart written by Samuel Gershman and published by Princeton University Press. This book was released on 2021-10-19 with total page 218 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Introduction: are we smart? -- Rational illusions -- Structure and origins of inductive bias -- Learning from others -- Good questions -- How to never be wrong -- Seeing patterns -- Are we consistent? -- Celestial teapots and flying spaghetti monsters -- The frugal brain -- Language design -- The uses of randomness -- Conclusion: what makes us smart.

Things That Make Us Smart

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Publisher : Diversion Books
ISBN 13 : 1626815372
Total Pages : 388 pages
Book Rating : 4.77/5 ( download)

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Book Synopsis Things That Make Us Smart by : Don Norman

Download or read book Things That Make Us Smart written by Don Norman and published by Diversion Books. This book was released on 2014-12-02 with total page 388 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: By the author of THE DESIGN OF EVERYDAY THINGS. Insightful and whimsical, profoundly intelligent and easily accessible, Don Norman has been exploring the design of our world for decades, exploring this complex relationship between humans and machines. In this seminal work, fully revised and updated, Norman gives us the first steps towards demanding a person-centered redesign of the machines we use every day. Humans have always worked with objects to extend our cognitive powers, from counting on our fingers to designing massive supercomputers. But advanced technology does more than merely assist with memory—the machines we create begin to shape how we think and, at times, even what we value. In THINGS THAT MAKE US SMART, Donald Norman explores the complex interaction between human thought and the technology it creates, arguing for the development of machines that fit our minds, rather than minds that must conform to the machine.

Simple Heuristics that Make Us Smart

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Publisher : Oxford University Press
ISBN 13 : 0190286768
Total Pages : 432 pages
Book Rating : 4.67/5 ( download)

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Book Synopsis Simple Heuristics that Make Us Smart by : Gerd Gigerenzer

Download or read book Simple Heuristics that Make Us Smart written by Gerd Gigerenzer and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2000-10-12 with total page 432 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart invites readers to embark on a new journey into a land of rationality that differs from the familiar territory of cognitive science and economics. Traditional views of rationality tend to see decision makers as possessing superhuman powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and all of eternity in which to ponder choices. To understand decisions in the real world, we need a different, more psychologically plausible notion of rationality, and this book provides it. It is about fast and frugal heuristics--simple rules for making decisions when time is pressing and deep thought an unaffordable luxury. These heuristics can enable both living organisms and artificial systems to make smart choices, classifications, and predictions by employing bounded rationality. But when and how can such fast and frugal heuristics work? Can judgments based simply on one good reason be as accurate as those based on many reasons? Could less knowledge even lead to systematically better predictions than more knowledge? Simple Heuristics explores these questions, developing computational models of heuristics and testing them through experiments and analyses. It shows how fast and frugal heuristics can produce adaptive decisions in situations as varied as choosing a mate, dividing resources among offspring, predicting high school drop out rates, and playing the stock market. As an interdisciplinary work that is both useful and engaging, this book will appeal to a wide audience. It is ideal for researchers in cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, and cognitive science, as well as in economics and artificial intelligence. It will also inspire anyone interested in simply making good decisions.

This Will Make You Smarter

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Publisher : Harper Collins
ISBN 13 : 0062109405
Total Pages : 409 pages
Book Rating : 4.08/5 ( download)

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Book Synopsis This Will Make You Smarter by : John Brockman

Download or read book This Will Make You Smarter written by John Brockman and published by Harper Collins. This book was released on 2012-02-14 with total page 409 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Featuring a foreword by David Brooks, This Will Make You Smarter presents brilliant—but accessible—ideas to expand every mind. What scientific concept would improve everybody’s cognitive toolkit? This is the question John Brockman, publisher of Edge.org, posed to the world’s most influential thinkers. Their visionary answers flow from the frontiers of psychology, philosophy, economics, physics, sociology, and more. Surprising and enlightening, these insights will revolutionize the way you think about yourself and the world. Contributors include: Daniel Kahneman on the “focusing illusion” Jonah Lehrer on controlling attention Richard Dawkins on experimentation Aubrey De Grey on conquering our fear of the unknown Martin Seligman on the ingredients of well-being Nicholas Carr on managing “cognitive load” Steven Pinker on win-win negotiating Daniel Goleman on understanding our connection to the natural world Matt Ridley on tapping collective intelligence Lisa Randall on effective theorizing Brian Eno on “ecological vision” J. Craig Venter on the multiple possible origins of life Helen Fisher on temperament Sam Harris on the flow of thought Lawrence Krauss on living with uncertainty

You Are Not So Smart

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Publisher : Avery
ISBN 13 : 1592407366
Total Pages : 320 pages
Book Rating : 4.61/5 ( download)

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Book Synopsis You Are Not So Smart by : David McRaney

Download or read book You Are Not So Smart written by David McRaney and published by Avery. This book was released on 2012-11-06 with total page 320 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Explains how self-delusion is part of a person's psychological defense system, identifying common misconceptions people have on topics such as caffeine withdrawal, hindsight, and brand loyalty.

Smarter Than You Think

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Publisher : Penguin
ISBN 13 : 1101638710
Total Pages : 352 pages
Book Rating : 4.12/5 ( download)

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Book Synopsis Smarter Than You Think by : Clive Thompson

Download or read book Smarter Than You Think written by Clive Thompson and published by Penguin. This book was released on 2013-09-12 with total page 352 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: A revelatory and timely look at how technology boosts our cognitive abilities—making us smarter, more productive, and more creative than ever It’s undeniable—technology is changing the way we think. But is it for the better? Amid a chorus of doomsayers, Clive Thompson delivers a resounding “yes.” In Smarter Than You Think, Thompson shows that every technological innovation—from the written word to the printing press to the telegraph—has provoked the very same anxieties that plague us today. We panic that life will never be the same, that our attentions are eroding, that culture is being trivialized. But, as in the past, we adapt—learning to use the new and retaining what is good of the old. Smarter Than You Think embraces and extols this transformation, presenting an exciting vision of the present and the future.

Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are?

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Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN 13 : 0393246191
Total Pages : 340 pages
Book Rating : 4.93/5 ( download)

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Book Synopsis Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are? by : Frans de Waal

Download or read book Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are? written by Frans de Waal and published by W. W. Norton & Company. This book was released on 2016-04-25 with total page 340 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: A New York Times bestseller: "A passionate and convincing case for the sophistication of nonhuman minds." —Alison Gopnik, The Atlantic Hailed as a classic, Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are? explores the oddities and complexities of animal cognition—in crows, dolphins, parrots, sheep, wasps, bats, chimpanzees, and bonobos—to reveal how smart animals really are, and how we’ve underestimated their abilities for too long. Did you know that octopuses use coconut shells as tools, that elephants classify humans by gender and language, and that there is a young male chimpanzee at Kyoto University whose flash memory puts that of humans to shame? Fascinating, entertaining, and deeply informed, de Waal’s landmark work will convince you to rethink everything you thought you knew about animal—and human—intelligence.

Bots and Beasts

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Publisher : MIT Press
ISBN 13 : 0262548542
Total Pages : 307 pages
Book Rating : 4.40/5 ( download)

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Book Synopsis Bots and Beasts by : Paul Thagard

Download or read book Bots and Beasts written by Paul Thagard and published by MIT Press. This book was released on 2024-04-02 with total page 307 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: An expert on mind considers how animals and smart machines measure up to human intelligence. Octopuses can open jars to get food, and chimpanzees can plan for the future. An IBM computer named Watson won on Jeopardy! and Alexa knows our favorite songs. But do animals and smart machines really have intelligence comparable to that of humans? In Bots and Beasts, Paul Thagard looks at how computers ("bots") and animals measure up to the minds of people, offering the first systematic comparison of intelligence across machines, animals, and humans. Thagard explains that human intelligence is more than IQ and encompasses such features as problem solving, decision making, and creativity. He uses a checklist of twenty characteristics of human intelligence to evaluate the smartest machines--including Watson, AlphaZero, virtual assistants, and self-driving cars--and the most intelligent animals--including octopuses, dogs, dolphins, bees, and chimpanzees. Neither a romantic enthusiast for nonhuman intelligence nor a skeptical killjoy, Thagard offers a clear assessment. He discusses hotly debated issues about animal intelligence concerning bacterial consciousness, fish pain, and dog jealousy. He evaluates the plausibility of achieving human-level artificial intelligence and considers ethical and policy issues. A full appreciation of human minds reveals that current bots and beasts fall far short of human capabilities.

Sleep and Learning

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Publisher : R&L Education
ISBN 13 : 1607090937
Total Pages : 130 pages
Book Rating : 4.39/5 ( download)

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Book Synopsis Sleep and Learning by : Gary R. Plaford

Download or read book Sleep and Learning written by Gary R. Plaford and published by R&L Education. This book was released on 2009-06-16 with total page 130 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The gradual and cumulative sleep deprivation that many students endure not only makes them too tired to focus well but also hampers memory consolidation and motivation. If we really want to improve school performance and graduation rates, we cannot afford to overlook something as basic and critical as sleep. Additionally, if we want to make an impact on both the physical and mental health of individuals in our society (which impacts mortality rates, health care, health insurance rates, the aging process, etc.), we need to begin by educating our youth about the relevance of sleep.